Table of Contents
QUESTION 1 JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN1
1.1 Job Description and Person Specification1
1.2The Principles of Job Design4
1.3The Method Used for Job Design6
2.1 Defining the Requirements of the New Cabin Crew7
2.2 selection criteria and evaluation8
2.3 Recruitment Process9
2.4 Selection methods9
The existing cabin crew of South Pacific Airline is old and not customer oriented as a result they are now less competitive compared to their competitors. A decision of changing the cabin crew has been made. This essay will take an insight review on how the recruitment of the new cabin crew is carried out.
A job description and person specification will be developed by using the job analysis tools and demonstrated in section 1.1.a and 1.1.b respectively. The principles of job design relevant to the cabin crew post will be demonstrated in section 1.2. In section 2, the author reviewed relevant literature and published materials as well as the case of the South Pacific Airline and determined the requirements of candidates for the new cabin crew. After all the requirements are determined, the selection criteria and corresponding evaluation methods will be discussed. At last, the recruitment process and selection methods applied to meet the purposes are described and discussed.
QUESTION 1 JOB ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Perceived as the most basic block of human resource management, job analysis allows the information about content, context and human requirements of a job to be gathered and analysed in a systematic way. A job description and a person specification can then be developed based on the output from the job analysis. (Mathis & Jackson, 2008) Appropriate job analysis and design tools will be applied to prepare the job description and person specification.
1.1 Job Description and Person Specification
The responsibility, duties and tasks are identified in a job description, (Mathis & Jackson, 2008) which may include job title, work to be performed, et al .The following table presents the job description based on the job analysis of the new cabin crew of South Pacific Airlines:
||Cabin Crew Member of
||South Pacific Airlines
|As the main point of contact for passengers while they are in the air, the air cabin crews are supposed to be service oriented, responsible for the safety, comfort and pleasing services during a flight. During your work you might be challenged by using your best customer service and interpersonal skill when delivering the high South Pacific Airline standard.
|l To provide a highly satisfying service for passengers in the fastest growing air (Asian-Pacific Region) and ensure that passengers are comfortable throughout the flight.l To bring our flight service up to a high customer oriented standard providing pleasant flying experience to passengers.
l To form a customer oriented and competitive cabin crew to fit with our image as young and dynamic.
|l Assuring and applying the safety and security regulations on boardl Caring for international passengers on board
l Conducting the meal and beverage service
l Independent flight preparation
l Preparing the aeroplane cabin
l Organising the workflow in the aero plane galleys
l Handling customers’ requests during flights
(Swiss International Airlines,2010)
|South Pacific Airlines Human Resource DepartmentTel: ***
Also known as job specification, a person specification details the knowledge, skills, and abilities an individual needs to full fill the duties and responsibility of the job. (Mathis & Jackson, 2008) A person specification may cover person qualities and attributes, experience, record of achievement, skills or qualifications and organization-match. (Roberts, 2005)
|KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS & ABILITIES
|l Young (aged between 21 and 30)l Strong service orientation is crucial: be confident, friendly and patient with passengers
l Attractive, cheerful, passionate, dynamic and progressive with excellent interpersonal communication skills and impeccable manners
l Be tactful but assertive, with the ability to deal with difficult situations politely with smiles and preferable tender speaking voice.
l Ability to work under pressure and the ability to handle emergency calmly, quickly, efficiently and friendly
l Be sensitive and reassuring with anxious or upset customers
l High standard of English speaking skill
l Excellent health
|EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE
|People with relevant customer service experience preferred.
Above is the output of job design and analysis, which will be presented in the following sections.
1.2 The Principles of Job Design
“Job design refers to organizing tasks, duties, responsibilities, and other elements into a productive unit of work.” (Mathis & Jackson, 2008, P165) It means in a job design, HR managers need to work out the content of the job i.e. what activities should be performed, where and how are they to be performed as well as the competencies of the people who are going to perform them. Moreover, it also facilitates the performance of work consequently the performance of work. (Australian Catholic University, 2008) In the job design for South Pacific Airlines, all those sort of things above need to be figured out in order to produce a job description. For example, in the job description in section 1, the duties of a cabin crew are clarified as “caring for international passengers on board” et al and also the requirements of candidates (the person specification).
It has been identified that the main purpose of job design is to enhance the motivation of employees and productivity by Rush (1971). Armstrong (2006) also restated the purpose into two parts, which are i) to fulfill the productivity, operational efficiency, and product/service quality requirements of an organization and, ii) to satisfy the employees’ needs for interest, challenge and accomplishment. In this case the existing cabin crew of South Pacific Airlines is old and working with low productivity as described in the case “surly and not service oriented” that is, they are not giving the service with high standard since the “in flight service at best is average” and the company is facing a severer loss in market share. In order to turn this situation around, the decision of recruiting a new team of cabin crew has been made to improve the productivity. A highly productive cabin crew is supposed to be “young, attractive, cheerful and dynamic” and always treat the customers with a “smile” instead of a “snarl”.
Moreover, Robertson and Smith (1985) suggested five principles for job design as skill variety, task identification, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Similarly, in the Principles of Job Design Guide by Australian Catholic University (2008) referred them as the key factors that could be taken into consideration in a job design to make it more meaningful.
It refers to the variety of a job. A repetitive can bore some people, but too much variety, on the other hand, can frustrate people. Hence, the job variety needs to be well designed. The job of a cabin crew is a repetitive job in terms of its working process of every flight such as introducing the safety guide to passengers every time before the plane takes off. However, different situations that need to be handled differently may come across to the cabin crew. The best level of variety of a job depends on the role/post and differs from person to person, thus people on the position must be required to be responsible for their roles (see below).
2) People responsible for the position
The HR manager should clarify the obligations in a job design so that people can see their responsibility/duties in their positions. In this case, the regular duties are to be listed in the job description to clearly deliver the obligation of the cabin crew in both individually and as part of a team.
3) Autonomy to the level possible
It comes with the responsibilities of a job and gives more scopes that people need to regulate. A cabin crew with high performance is required to provide every passenger a pleasant flight experience. Therefore, cabin crews are required to deal with difficult situations and customers politely “with a smile”
4) Task identity
It is important for some people to see the end results of their work so it is motivating to show people their achievement of every flight such as the level of satisfaction of passengers.
5) Constructive feedback
In relevant to the task identity, which is associated with the level of satisfaction, feedbacks play a helpful role in knowing the satisfaction level. The feedback can be given by customers, colleagues and supervisors.
The principles and the key aims of a job design have been explained above and how these can be achieved will be described in detail in section 1.3.
1.3 The Method Used for Job Design
Five methods may be used for job design namely
1) Job rotation, in which employees are swapped between different working tasks to minimize the monotony of a job
2) Job enlargement, in which small pieces of tasks are combined to make one job, again aiming at increasing the variety of a job,
3) Job enrichment, which is based on job characteristics and beyond job enlargement, more autonomy and responsibilities are added into a job,
4) Self-managing team (autonomous work groups) which is based on a logical extension of job enrichment, the teams work in a self-regulating mode without direct supervisor, and
5) High-performance work design, which focuses on forming working groups in environment where high working standard is needed.
The high-performance work design method has been used to design the post of cabin crew because it is obvious that high performance is needed in this position as described in the case that service oriented people are needed to match the image of young and dynamic. The steps of this approach as follow may be used in designing a job:
l Clear defining what is needed in terms of new technology or methods of production and the expected result. Primarily, the need of a young, cheerful, attractive and service oriented cabin crew is clearly defined to increase the service of flights and as a result achieve the aim of becoming “the fastest growing and most profitable airline in Asia-Pacific Region.
l Multi-skilling is preferable. As a cabin crew the most important thing is to give the most satisfying service to customers hence the multi-skill of this post is the ability to handle emergency calmly and deal with difficulties friendly, politely and patiently.
l Management sets standards for success. For this case the standard of success, as described before, is to form a service oriented team and hence maximize the satisfaction of customers. The standard could be set as 100% satisfaction of every flight which may be judged by customer feedback and comparing the new market share of the company with the old one.
l The payment system can be designed to motivate the cabin crew. First, high pay may attract more young people. Second, a bonus on good performance can encourage them to provide the best service.
2.1 Defining the Requirements of the New Cabin Crew
For this post the two relevant required experiences are airline service and customer service. The later one is important for a service oriented candidate.
There ought not to be any strict requirements of academic requirements for the candidates however, they must be able to know the languages which will be in their work in a high standard.
There should be a training course for the selected candidates to familiarize them with the working process of pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight. However, people with relevant knowledge are preferred.
It is important for the candidates to be passionate with their work, attractive, cheerful, confident, patient and smiley et al. Additionally, it is crucial that the candidates have good condition of health for them to be able to take this job.
Other Special Requirements
The cabin crew travels frequently and with long time. This post is not a job from 8 am to 5 pm; in contrast, it depends on the schedule of flights. Hence the candidates must be able to work in such work shift.
Recruitment Action Plan
In order to attract qualified candidates for this post, a scheme of benefits and performance appraisal for individual is needed by setting a good salary, welfare and other benefits. For example, an excellent tax-free payment package can be provided. Bonus and travel allowance can be provided. Travel discount quotas for employees’ family can also be considered.
2.2 selection criteria and evaluation
The selection criteria can be the person specification and competency-based criteria. (Torrington & Hall, 2008) Based on the information about the post above, the selection criteria could be:
l Language level
l Heath condition
l The level of service orientation
l The ability of dealing with difficulties
The criteria above could be evaluated by:
l Language tests
l Health test
l Psychometric test, in which some possible situations will be assumed and described and candidates are required to choose the way which they think is the best to deal with the situation.
l Personality/psychological tests, and
l Some short logic and math tests
2.3 Recruitment Process
A typical recruitment process includes advertising recruitment, screening and selecting candidates, (Sharma, 2009) either externally or internally. (Beardwell et al, 2007)
Firstly, advertisement can be carried out in both the company website and the recruitment agents for both internal and external candidates. Additionally, for the internal recruitment, an announcement in the company can be made by the HR team with the scheme of benefits to attract applicants.
Both internal and external applicants can fill in an application form which describes their basic personal details such as height and education background, along with their resumes. Then the screening process can be carried out by looking at the documents submitted. In this stage, those who do not meet the basic requirements will be rejected and conversely those who are selected in this process will be given some online test including language level test, psychological test and math test et al. Those who pass this stage will be called for an interview.
2.4 Selection methods
There are various selection methods in which three will be chosen to for the selection process of the cabin crew, namely interview, psychometric tests and application forms. (Goss, 1993)
Interviews are crucial for the selection of a cabin crew. Primarily, attractive and cheerful cabin crews with smile are highly required. Interviews can provide a direct and quick way to judge the appearance of a person in terms of attractiveness et al. Moreover, it can also be seen how the candidates talk and act and their manners.
In a psychometric test, some situation associated with customers, emergencies and difficulties would be described for candidates to deal with using their relevant knowledge and personality. This method is highly recommended in this case study because what the airline needs at the moment is a team of customer oriented cabin crew. The psychometric test is an effective way to observe the way the potential handle the situations and treat the customers.
Last but not least, application forms are essential for the recruitment. Candidates’ basic and necessary information can be fully obtained by looking at the forms. It is also helpful for the screening process as in this stage the numbers of candidates may be a lot and screen them by looking at the forms will save HR manager a lot of time.
In conclusion, this essay has review the relevant literature for the case study and systematically linked the recruitment and human resource management knowledge to solving the problem of existing/old cabin crews that South Pacific Airlines have. Basically, the first part proposed a job description and person specification as the output of job analysis and the second part looked at the factors that an HR manager needs to consider when selecting people, such as evaluation criteria and selection methods. For this case, in short, facing their severe loss in market share in the competitive industry, the airline needs some changes in personnel to turn the situation around by means of injecting some new and young blood into the cabin crew.
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