Graduation ceremony status: study from Swansea University online survey

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report analyzed an online survey from students’ feedbacks after graduation ceremony in summer 2011 of Swansea University. Survey shows that 84.54% respondents coming from Welsh and English and totally 89.2% respondents were satisfied with their graduation ceremony, and most of them had at leas 2 guests accompanied in the ceremony.

Female generally tend to be mo positively after leaving the ceremony and more satisfy with the ceremony process than male. There is a strong positive relationship between synthesis satisfaction status and positive emotion, but not with negative emotion. Respondents’ are more potentially intend to recommend their friends coming to the ceremony if they had high satisfaction and positive emotion in the ceremony, but would not recommend their friends if with low satiation and negative emotion after leaving ceremony.

Information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter could be one of the key factors decide the overall satisfaction status, and hence determine the intention of encouraging friends to the ceremony. Those who have more guests turn to be more positive after finishing the ceremony and more intend to encourage their friends to come to the ceremony. Therefore, to improve information sending quality at Easter and the encourage students inviting more guests seems to be a positive way to improve students felling experience about the ceremony.

INTRODUCTION

Graduation is a very important event for every college students, and graduation ceremony is a limestone for students concluding their study and start a new life. Apart from few continually doing higher degree, students generally no longer belong to the university and no more a ‘student’ after graduation. Some proud of their university, having good relationship with their classmates may feel sad and some may feel release from heavy coursework after graduation. In addition, Students can have the chance familiar with their alumni and alumnae which may influence their further career life. A success graduation ceremony could also benefit to university of encouraging students keep in touch with university after leaving campus, which for example donations. Students would usually be more proud of university after graduation ceremony, and would potentially encourage friends and other people apply their university. Therefore, to understand the graduation ceremony attendance status, such as students’ satisfaction about the ceremony, their contacting with Alumni Association status, their feelings after came away from ceremony, etc, hence would help university have a overall understand about students’ university life and feeling, and also the improvement of ceremony.

This report analyzed an online survey from students’ feedbacks after graduation ceremony in summer 2011 of Swansea University. Statistical analyses have been completed by SPSS (Version 15.0; SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA).

RESEARCH QUESTIONS WITH DATA ANALYSIS

Data Descriptive

Respondents’ demographic profile

 

 

(a) (b)

Figure 1. The gender ratio (a) and the nationality proportion (b) (Welsh, English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish, other European, Asian and others) from online survey respondent

The Pie chart (Figure 1) shows the gender ratio and nationality proportion of respondents from total 336 students. As can be seen that there are more female (55.38 %) students have taken the survey than male students (44.62 %). Among all respondents, welsh and English take up the main proportion (both 42.27 %), and followed by other nationality and Asian which are 5.36 % and 5.05 % respectively. Scottish, Irish, Northern Irish and other European take the rest 5 %. Appendix 1 shows the frequency of respondents from different nationalities.

 

Figure 2. Respondents’ age range proportions.

Respondents’ age here is separated as 7 ranges from 20 to above 50 with 5 year interval (Figure 2). Respondents from 20 to 25 years old take the most frequency part in 86.6 %. The percentage suddenly goes down to 5.1 % for the age 26 to 30, and again declining with the increase of age, i.e. 2.2 % for 31 – 35, 1.6 % for 36 – 40, 1.9 % for both 41 – 45 and 46 – 50, and only 0.6 % for above 50. SPSS frequency table can be seen from appendix 2.

Respondents’ graduation frequency and faculty of graduation ceremonies

It was the first graduation ceremony for 247 of all 336 respondents (73.5 %) and only 89 (26.5 %) had taken at least once before (see appendix 3). Among all valid questionnaire of attending graduation ceremony categories, respondents who had taken “Arts and Humanities” ceremonies take up the highest number (27.6 %), and followed by “Business, Economics and Law” and “College Science”, both of which takes up 21.3 %. “Human and Health Sciences” and “Engineering” were the lowest two categories, taking up 17.5 % and 12.4 % respectively (see appendix 4).

Respondents’ satisfactions about the graduation ceremony and evaluation of the information received before the ceremonies

Overall, most respondents satisfied with their graduation ceremony. In particular, there are 44.9 % satisfied with the ceremony and 44.3 % very satisfied. Only 5.1 % and 2.4 % showed dissatisfied and very dissatisfied with the ceremony (appendix 5a). If satisfaction is separated as 5 points from very dissatisfied (point 1) to very satisfied (point 5), the average points is 4.24 (appendix 5b).

 

Figure 3. Respondents’ satisfaction level about the sufficient information received before the ceremonies

For evaluating the information received before the ceremonies, 57.1 % thought details on the University web pages were sufficient and 17.6 % thought very sufficient, while 54.2 % thought information in the Graduation pack sent at Easter was sufficient and another 35.7 % thought very sufficient (Figure 3). By comparison, if sufficient levels are separated as 5 points from not sufficient at all (point 1) to very sufficient (point 5), the average sufficient level of details on the University web pages is 3.81 and information in the Graduation pack sent at Easter is 4.19).

Frequency of talking about the graduation ceremony with friends and families and Number of guests accompanied at the graduation ceremony

Generally, there are 63.6 % of respondents frequently (frequency point 4 and above) talking about the graduation ceremony with friends and families in general way, i.e. face to face, via emails, phone, etc, and in comparison, only 36.8 % respondents frequently using social network sites which for example Facebook and Myspace talking about ceremony with others (See appendix 6 a and b).

 

Figure 4. Number of guests accompanied at the graduation ceremony

Figure 4 shows number of guests accompanied responds at the graduation ceremony, among which 24.29 % have two guests, 36.59 % have three guest and 35.02 % have more than four guests. This can be seen that students indeed take graduation ceremony as their big event and most of them invited at least two guests participating in the ceremony.

Factor Analysis

Respondents’ motions and satisfaction of their graduation ceremony

Repondents’ motions are apparently related with each other (KOM = 0.854, p value of Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity < 0.001), so factor analysis has been used, where four factors are selected in the explanation of respondents’ motions after they leaving the graduation ceremony. However, only component 1 and component 2 have eigenvalues above 1 (table 1 a), which contributes 55 % totally of the variance. From table 1b we can see that component 1 contributes more to positive emotions such as “Happiness”, “Excitement”, “Joy”, “Pride”, “Gratitude” and “Energy”, while component 2 contributes more to the negative emotions such as “Fear”, “Anger”, “Sadness”, “Shame” and “Envy”.

 

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

4.167

37.884

37.884

4.167

37.884

37.884

2

1.884

17.125

55.009

1.884

17.125

55.009

3

.951

8.643

63.652

.951

8.643

63.652

4

.774

7.034

70.686

.774

7.034

70.686

5

.757

6.883

77.569

     

6

.657

5.972

83.542

     

7

.508

4.617

88.159

     

8

.435

3.957

92.116

     

9

.340

3.091

95.207

     

10

.297

2.698

97.905

     

11

.230

2.095

100.000

     

(a)

 

Component

1

2

3

4

Happiness

.849

.030

.018

-.140

Excitement

.829

.231

.091

-.005

Joy

.869

.088

.118

.031

Pride

.791

.043

-.111

-.006

Gratitude

.645

.262

.012

.129

Energy

.699

.239

.187

.195

Fear

-.025

.634

-.382

.278

Anger

-.511

.374

.131

.491

Sadness

-.072

.544

-.667

-.276

Shame

-.369

.693

.360

.070

Envy

-.265

.613

.378

-.547

(b)

Table 1. Total Variance Explained from Factor analysis by the method of principal component analysis for the question about respondents’ feelings when coming away from their graduation ceremony (a), and related Component Matrix results (b).

Factor analysis also is used in the analysis for the respondents’ satisfaction about graduation ceremony (KOM = 0.854, p value of Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity < 0.001), and three components are selected, contributing 63.087 % for the total variance (table 2a). From the Component Matrix result (table 2b), we can see that component 1 related with all items, while component 2 related to the ceremony organizational status and component 3 related to ceremony process itself. Hereby the component 1 is defined as the “Synthesis Factor”, component 2 defined as “Organizational Factor” and component 3 as “Ceremony Process Factor”.

Component

Initial Eigenvalues

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

Total

% of Variance

Cumulative %

1

4.316

43.161

43.161

4.316

43.161

43.161

2

1.013

10.130

53.290

1.013

10.130

53.290

3

.980

9.797

63.087

.980

9.797

63.087

4

.852

8.516

71.604

     

5

.616

6.158

77.762

     

6

.579

5.788

83.550

     

7

.496

4.965

88.515

     

8

.449

4.488

93.003

     

9

.374

3.743

96.746

     

10

.325

3.254

100.000

     

(a)

 

Component

1

2

3

The speeches

.681

-.435

.211

The procession of academic staff

.729

.099

.288

The length of the ceremony

.673

-.507

.094

Going on stage and receiving my degree

.560

.043

.395

Staff attendance at the ceremony

.529

.392

.347

The Brangwyn Hall as a venue for the ceremony

.635

.406

-.112

The registration process on the day

.676

.269

-.434

The waiting time involved during the day

.681

-.372

-.340

The general organisation of the day

.733

.070

-.466

The handbook to accompany the ceremony

.643

.149

.180

(b)

Table 2. Total Variance Explained from Factor analysis by the method of principal component analysis for the question about respondents’ satisfaction about graduation ceremony (a), and related Component Matrix results (b).

Regression Analysis

The effect of Gender for the ceremonies attendance and feeling

Table 3 shows the ANOVA results from SPSS of gender on the ceremonies attendance and feeling. Results shows that gender has significant effects on Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony (F = 4.375, p = 0.037) and Ceremony Process satisfaction status (F = 4.180, p = 0.042), i.e., female generally tend to be mo positively after leaving the ceremony and more satisfy with the ceremony process than male. Gender dose not significantly affect respondents’ ceremony attended times, negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony, Synthesis Factor of satisfaction status and Ceremony Process Factor of satisfaction status. On the other hand, slightly significant different is observed between male and female on graduation participation categories (F = 3.08, p = 0.08).

 

   

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Graduation ceremonies – 5 categories

Between Groups

6.815

1

6.815

3.080

.080

Within Groups

652.747

295

2.213

   

Total

659.562

296

     

How often have you attended a similar graduation ceremony before (as a guest or a graduate)?

Between Groups

.325

1

.325

1.675

.197

Within Groups

60.875

314

.194

   

Total

61.199

315

     

Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony

Between Groups

4.347

1

4.347

4.375

.037

Within Groups

312.021

314

.994

   

Total

316.368

315

     

Negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony

Between Groups

.045

1

.045

.043

.835

Within Groups

322.403

314

1.027

   

Total

322.448

315

     

Synthesis Factor

Between Groups

.013

1

.013

.013

.910

Within Groups

306.997

306

1.003

   

Total

307.010

307

     

Organizational Factor

Between Groups

.126

1

.126

.124

.725

Within Groups

309.650

306

1.012

   

Total

309.776

307

     

Ceremony Process Factor

 

Between Groups

3.977

1

3.977

4.180

.042

Within Groups

291.148

306

.951

   

Total

295.125

307

     

Table 3. ANOVA results from SPSS testing effects of gender on the above categories

Relationship among age, satisfaction, behavioural intention and emotions

In particular, there is positive relationship between age and synthesis satisfaction status (table 4, F = 4.75, p = 0.03 and R2 = 0.015), but not observed in other satisfaction factors. Strong significant positive relationship has been found between synthesis satisfaction status and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony (table 5, F = 173.309, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.287). Strong positive relationship also detected between synthesis satisfaction status and positive emotion (table 6, F = 173.309, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.353), while not with negative emotion. In addition, there is strong co-linearity relationship between emotions status (both positive and negative) and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony (table7, F = 88.484, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.359), i.e. positive relationship for positive emotion (β = 0.418) and negative relationship for negative emotion (β = -0.170) with behavioural intention.

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.124(a)

.015

.012

.99176253

(a)

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

4.672

1

4.672

4.750

.030(a)

Residual

299.012

304

.984

   

Total

303.684

305

     

(b)

Table 4, Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA test (b) from SPSS between age and synthesis satisfaction status

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.536(a)

.287

.285

.718

(a)

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

64.892

1

64.892

126.008

.000(a)

Residual

161.190

313

.515

   

Total

226.083

314

     

(b)

Table 5. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA test (b) from SPSS between synthesis satisfaction status and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.595(a)

.353

.351

.8087703

(a)

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

113.363

1

113.363

173.309

.000(a)

Residual

207.353

317

.654

   

Total

320.716

318

     

(b)

Table 6. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA test (b) from SPSS between synthesis satisfaction and positive emotion

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.604(a)

.365

.361

.676

(a)

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

83.886

2

41.943

91.854

.000(a)

Residual

146.120

320

.457

   

Total

230.006

322

     

(b)

Model

 

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

B

Std. Error

1

(Constant)

4.453

.038

 

118.444

.000

Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony

.481

.038

.569

12.766

.000

Negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony

-.170

.037

-.202

-4.540

.000

(c)

Table 7. Linear regression model summary (a), ANOVA (b) and Coefficients (c) from SPSS between emotions status and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony

Accordingly, respondents’ behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony can be predicted from their synthesis satisfaction status and emotional status after attending the ceremony. Respondents’ are more intend to recommend their friends coming to the ceremony if they had high satisfaction and positive emotion. Otherwise they would potentially not recommending their friend attending the ceremony if they were not satisfy with ceremony or had negative feeling after leaving.

Other Findings

There is significant positive relationship between respondents’ overall satisfaction and the frequency of talking about with their graduation ceremony with friends and families in genera way (table 8, F = 31.452, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.086). However, not any relationship has been found between satisfactions and talking about ceremony in social network site. This probably due to fewer people use social network site to describe their graduation ceremony.

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.294(a)

.086

.084

.877

(a)

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

24.196

1

24.196

31.452

.000(a)

Residual

256.174

333

.769

   

Total

280.370

334

     

(b)

Table 8. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA (b) from SPSS between respondents’ overall satisfaction and the frequency of talking about with their graduation ceremony with friends and families in genera way

In addition, significant positive relationship has been detected between the ceremony information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter the overall ceremony satisfaction (table 9, F = 26.104, p < 0.001, and R2 = 0.072), and also between information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter with respondents’ intention of recommending friends to the further ceremony (table 10, F = 28.454, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.081).

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.269(a)

.072

.070

.883

(a)

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

20.366

1

20.366

26.104

.000(a)

Residual

260.586

334

.780

   

Total

280.952

335

     

(b)

Table 9. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA (b) from SPSS between respondents’ overall satisfaction and information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

18.728

1

18.728

28.454

.000(a)

Residual

211.278

321

.658

   

Total

230.006

322

     

(a)

Model

 

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

B

Std. Error

1

(Constant)

3.175

.244

 

13.031

.000

How do you rate the information received before the ceremonies?-Information in the Graduation pack sent at Easter

.305

.057

.285

5.334

.000

(b)

Table 10. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA (b) from SPSS between respondents’ intention of recommending friends to the further ceremony and information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter

Furthermore, there is a weak significant co-linearity relationship between emotions status and number of guests accompanied (F = 3.842, p = 0.022 and R2 = 0.024), i.e. people with more guests tend to be more emotionally positive (β = 0.1), e.g. happiness, joy, excitement, etc, and those who have less guests tend to be more emotionally negative (β = -0.1), e.g. sadness, shame, etc.

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.155(a)

.024

.018

.916

(a)

Model

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

6.449

2

3.225

3.842

.022(a)

Residual

263.538

314

.839

   

Total

269.987

316

     

(b)

Model

 

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

   

B

Std. Error

Beta

B

Std. Error

1

(Constant)

4.009

.051

 

77.898

.000

 

Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony

.101

.052

.108

1.944

.053

 

Negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony

-.100

.051

-.108

-1.945

.053

(c)

Table 7. Linear regression model summary (a), ANOVA (b) and Coefficients (c) from SPSS between emotions status after leaving the ceremony and number of guests accompanied

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATION

Most respondents of the survey are from Welsh and English. Survey shows that 89.2% respondents were satisfied with their graduation ceremony. Respondents’ motions after leaving the ceremony can be separated as two overall factors: positive and negative. Satisfaction details of graduation ceremony can be separated three factors: Synthesis Factor”, “Organizational Factor” and “Ceremony Process Factor”. Female generally tend to be mo positively after leaving the ceremony and more satisfy with the ceremony process than male. There is a strong positive relationship between synthesis satisfaction status and positive emotion, but not with negative emotion. Respondents’ are more potentially intend to recommend their friends coming to the ceremony if they had high satisfaction and positive emotion in the ceremony, but would not recommend their friends if with low satiation and negative emotion after leaving ceremony.

Information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter could be one of the key factors decide the overall satisfaction status, and hence determine the intention of encouraging friends to the ceremony, which is the most concerned question by university. So that to improve information posting quality is important. Older students tend to have more synthesis satisfaction feeling than younger people.

In addition, there are about 96% students having at least 2 guests accompanied them for the ceremony. Those who have more guests turn to be more positive after finishing the ceremony and more intend to encourage their friends to come to the ceremony. Therefore, to encourage students inviting more guests seems to be a positive way to improve the ceremony felling qualification.

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. Respondents’ nationality frequency from SPSS

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Welsh

134

39.9

42.3

42.3

English

134

39.9

42.3

84.5

Scottish

2

.6

.6

85.2

Northern Irish

1

.3

.3

85.5

Irish

2

.6

.6

86.1

Other European

11

3.3

3.5

89.6

Asian

16

4.8

5.0

94.6

Other

17

5.1

5.4

100.0

Total

317

94.3

100.0

 

Missing

Refuse to answer

3

.9

   

System

16

4.8

   

Total

19

5.7

   

Total

336

100.0

   

 

 

Appendix 2: Respondents’ age range frequency from SPSS

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

20-25

272

81.0

86.6

86.6

26-30

16

4.8

5.1

91.7

31-35

7

2.1

2.2

93.9

36-40

5

1.5

1.6

95.5

41-45

6

1.8

1.9

97.5

46-50

6

1.8

1.9

99.4

Above 50

2

.6

.6

100.0

Total

314

93.5

100.0

 

Missing

System

22

6.5

   

Total

336

100.0

   

 

Appendix 3. SPSS frequency from question 1: How often have you attended a similar graduation ceremony before (as a guest or a graduate)?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

This was my first time

247

73.5

73.5

73.5

Once or more

89

26.5

26.5

100.0

Total

336

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

Appendix 4. SPSS frequency from question 2: Graduation ceremonies – 5 categories

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Arts and Humanities

87

25.9

27.6

27.6

Business, Economics, Law

67

19.9

21.3

48.9

Human and Health Sciences

55

16.4

17.5

66.3

Engineering

39

11.6

12.4

78.7

College Science

67

19.9

21.3

100.0

Total

315

93.8

100.0

 

Missing

System

21

6.3

   

Total

336

100.0

   

 

Appendix 5a.  SPSS frequency from question 3: Overall how satisfied were you with your graduation?

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Very dissatisfied

8

2.4

2.4

2.4

Dissatisfied

17

5.1

5.1

7.4

Neither

11

3.3

3.3

10.7

Satisfied

151

44.9

44.9

55.7

Very Satisfied

149

44.3

44.3

100.0

Total

336

100.0

100.0

 

 

Appendix 5b. Satisfaction Descriptive Statistics

 

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Overall how satisfied were you with your graduation?

336

1

5

4.24

.916

Valid N (listwise)

336

       

 

 

Appendix 6a. SPSS frequency for question 5: Since graduation ceremony, how often have you talked about it with your friends/family?…in general (i.e. face-to-face, via e-mail, phone, etc.)

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

5 – Very frequently

96

28.6

28.7

28.7

4

117

34.8

34.9

63.6

3

81

24.1

24.2

87.8

2

39

11.6

11.6

99.4

1 – Not at all

2

.6

.6

100.0

Total

335

99.7

100.0

 

Missing

System

1

.3

   

Total

336

100.0

   

 

Appendix 6b. SPSS frequency for question 5: Since your graduation ceremony, how often have you talked about it with your friends/family?…using social network sites (e.g. Facebook, MySpace, etc.)

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

5 – Very frequently

40

11.9

12.3

12.3

4

80

23.8

24.5

36.8

3

93

27.7

28.5

65.3

2

65

19.3

19.9

85.3

1 – Not at all

48

14.3

14.7

100.0

Total

326

97.0

100.0

 

Missing

System

10

3.0

   

Total

336

100.0

   

原文链接:Marketing analysis using SPSS