Graduation ceremony status: study from Swansea University online survey
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report analyzed an online survey from students’ feedbacks after graduation ceremony in summer 2011 of Swansea University. Survey shows that 84.54% respondents coming from Welsh and English and totally 89.2% respondents were satisfied with their graduation ceremony, and most of them had at leas 2 guests accompanied in the ceremony.
Female generally tend to be mo positively after leaving the ceremony and more satisfy with the ceremony process than male. There is a strong positive relationship between synthesis satisfaction status and positive emotion, but not with negative emotion. Respondents’ are more potentially intend to recommend their friends coming to the ceremony if they had high satisfaction and positive emotion in the ceremony, but would not recommend their friends if with low satiation and negative emotion after leaving ceremony.
Information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter could be one of the key factors decide the overall satisfaction status, and hence determine the intention of encouraging friends to the ceremony. Those who have more guests turn to be more positive after finishing the ceremony and more intend to encourage their friends to come to the ceremony. Therefore, to improve information sending quality at Easter and the encourage students inviting more guests seems to be a positive way to improve students felling experience about the ceremony.
INTRODUCTION
Graduation is a very important event for every college students, and graduation ceremony is a limestone for students concluding their study and start a new life. Apart from few continually doing higher degree, students generally no longer belong to the university and no more a ‘student’ after graduation. Some proud of their university, having good relationship with their classmates may feel sad and some may feel release from heavy coursework after graduation. In addition, Students can have the chance familiar with their alumni and alumnae which may influence their further career life. A success graduation ceremony could also benefit to university of encouraging students keep in touch with university after leaving campus, which for example donations. Students would usually be more proud of university after graduation ceremony, and would potentially encourage friends and other people apply their university. Therefore, to understand the graduation ceremony attendance status, such as students’ satisfaction about the ceremony, their contacting with Alumni Association status, their feelings after came away from ceremony, etc, hence would help university have a overall understand about students’ university life and feeling, and also the improvement of ceremony.
This report analyzed an online survey from students’ feedbacks after graduation ceremony in summer 2011 of Swansea University. Statistical analyses have been completed by SPSS (Version 15.0; SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA).
RESEARCH QUESTIONS WITH DATA ANALYSIS
Data Descriptive
Respondents’ demographic profile
(a) (b)
Figure 1. The gender ratio (a) and the nationality proportion (b) (Welsh, English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish, other European, Asian and others) from online survey respondent
The Pie chart (Figure 1) shows the gender ratio and nationality proportion of respondents from total 336 students. As can be seen that there are more female (55.38 %) students have taken the survey than male students (44.62 %). Among all respondents, welsh and English take up the main proportion (both 42.27 %), and followed by other nationality and Asian which are 5.36 % and 5.05 % respectively. Scottish, Irish, Northern Irish and other European take the rest 5 %. Appendix 1 shows the frequency of respondents from different nationalities.
Figure 2. Respondents’ age range proportions.
Respondents’ age here is separated as 7 ranges from 20 to above 50 with 5 year interval (Figure 2). Respondents from 20 to 25 years old take the most frequency part in 86.6 %. The percentage suddenly goes down to 5.1 % for the age 26 to 30, and again declining with the increase of age, i.e. 2.2 % for 31 – 35, 1.6 % for 36 – 40, 1.9 % for both 41 – 45 and 46 – 50, and only 0.6 % for above 50. SPSS frequency table can be seen from appendix 2.
Respondents’ graduation frequency and faculty of graduation ceremonies
It was the first graduation ceremony for 247 of all 336 respondents (73.5 %) and only 89 (26.5 %) had taken at least once before (see appendix 3). Among all valid questionnaire of attending graduation ceremony categories, respondents who had taken “Arts and Humanities” ceremonies take up the highest number (27.6 %), and followed by “Business, Economics and Law” and “College Science”, both of which takes up 21.3 %. “Human and Health Sciences” and “Engineering” were the lowest two categories, taking up 17.5 % and 12.4 % respectively (see appendix 4).
Respondents’ satisfactions about the graduation ceremony and evaluation of the information received before the ceremonies
Overall, most respondents satisfied with their graduation ceremony. In particular, there are 44.9 % satisfied with the ceremony and 44.3 % very satisfied. Only 5.1 % and 2.4 % showed dissatisfied and very dissatisfied with the ceremony (appendix 5a). If satisfaction is separated as 5 points from very dissatisfied (point 1) to very satisfied (point 5), the average points is 4.24 (appendix 5b).
Figure 3. Respondents’ satisfaction level about the sufficient information received before the ceremonies
For evaluating the information received before the ceremonies, 57.1 % thought details on the University web pages were sufficient and 17.6 % thought very sufficient, while 54.2 % thought information in the Graduation pack sent at Easter was sufficient and another 35.7 % thought very sufficient (Figure 3). By comparison, if sufficient levels are separated as 5 points from not sufficient at all (point 1) to very sufficient (point 5), the average sufficient level of details on the University web pages is 3.81 and information in the Graduation pack sent at Easter is 4.19).
Frequency of talking about the graduation ceremony with friends and families and Number of guests accompanied at the graduation ceremony
Generally, there are 63.6 % of respondents frequently (frequency point 4 and above) talking about the graduation ceremony with friends and families in general way, i.e. face to face, via emails, phone, etc, and in comparison, only 36.8 % respondents frequently using social network sites which for example Facebook and Myspace talking about ceremony with others (See appendix 6 a and b).
Figure 4. Number of guests accompanied at the graduation ceremony
Figure 4 shows number of guests accompanied responds at the graduation ceremony, among which 24.29 % have two guests, 36.59 % have three guest and 35.02 % have more than four guests. This can be seen that students indeed take graduation ceremony as their big event and most of them invited at least two guests participating in the ceremony.
Factor Analysis
Respondents’ motions and satisfaction of their graduation ceremony
Repondents’ motions are apparently related with each other (KOM = 0.854, p value of Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity < 0.001), so factor analysis has been used, where four factors are selected in the explanation of respondents’ motions after they leaving the graduation ceremony. However, only component 1 and component 2 have eigenvalues above 1 (table 1 a), which contributes 55 % totally of the variance. From table 1b we can see that component 1 contributes more to positive emotions such as “Happiness”, “Excitement”, “Joy”, “Pride”, “Gratitude” and “Energy”, while component 2 contributes more to the negative emotions such as “Fear”, “Anger”, “Sadness”, “Shame” and “Envy”.
Component 
Initial Eigenvalues 
Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings 

Total 
% of Variance 
Cumulative % 
Total 
% of Variance 
Cumulative % 

1 
4.167 
37.884 
37.884 
4.167 
37.884 
37.884 
2 
1.884 
17.125 
55.009 
1.884 
17.125 
55.009 
3 
.951 
8.643 
63.652 
.951 
8.643 
63.652 
4 
.774 
7.034 
70.686 
.774 
7.034 
70.686 
5 
.757 
6.883 
77.569 

6 
.657 
5.972 
83.542 

7 
.508 
4.617 
88.159 

8 
.435 
3.957 
92.116 

9 
.340 
3.091 
95.207 

10 
.297 
2.698 
97.905 

11 
.230 
2.095 
100.000 
(a)
Component 

1 
2 
3 
4 

Happiness 
.849 
.030 
.018 
.140 
Excitement 
.829 
.231 
.091 
.005 
Joy 
.869 
.088 
.118 
.031 
Pride 
.791 
.043 
.111 
.006 
Gratitude 
.645 
.262 
.012 
.129 
Energy 
.699 
.239 
.187 
.195 
Fear 
.025 
.634 
.382 
.278 
Anger 
.511 
.374 
.131 
.491 
Sadness 
.072 
.544 
.667 
.276 
Shame 
.369 
.693 
.360 
.070 
Envy 
.265 
.613 
.378 
.547 
(b)
Table 1. Total Variance Explained from Factor analysis by the method of principal component analysis for the question about respondents’ feelings when coming away from their graduation ceremony (a), and related Component Matrix results (b).
Factor analysis also is used in the analysis for the respondents’ satisfaction about graduation ceremony (KOM = 0.854, p value of Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity < 0.001), and three components are selected, contributing 63.087 % for the total variance (table 2a). From the Component Matrix result (table 2b), we can see that component 1 related with all items, while component 2 related to the ceremony organizational status and component 3 related to ceremony process itself. Hereby the component 1 is defined as the “Synthesis Factor”, component 2 defined as “Organizational Factor” and component 3 as “Ceremony Process Factor”.
Component 
Initial Eigenvalues 
Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings 

Total 
% of Variance 
Cumulative % 
Total 
% of Variance 
Cumulative % 

1 
4.316 
43.161 
43.161 
4.316 
43.161 
43.161 
2 
1.013 
10.130 
53.290 
1.013 
10.130 
53.290 
3 
.980 
9.797 
63.087 
.980 
9.797 
63.087 
4 
.852 
8.516 
71.604 

5 
.616 
6.158 
77.762 

6 
.579 
5.788 
83.550 

7 
.496 
4.965 
88.515 

8 
.449 
4.488 
93.003 

9 
.374 
3.743 
96.746 

10 
.325 
3.254 
100.000 
(a)
Component 

1 
2 
3 

The speeches 
.681 
.435 
.211 
The procession of academic staff 
.729 
.099 
.288 
The length of the ceremony 
.673 
.507 
.094 
Going on stage and receiving my degree 
.560 
.043 
.395 
Staff attendance at the ceremony 
.529 
.392 
.347 
The Brangwyn Hall as a venue for the ceremony 
.635 
.406 
.112 
The registration process on the day 
.676 
.269 
.434 
The waiting time involved during the day 
.681 
.372 
.340 
The general organisation of the day 
.733 
.070 
.466 
The handbook to accompany the ceremony 
.643 
.149 
.180 
(b)
Table 2. Total Variance Explained from Factor analysis by the method of principal component analysis for the question about respondents’ satisfaction about graduation ceremony (a), and related Component Matrix results (b).
Regression Analysis
The effect of Gender for the ceremonies attendance and feeling
Table 3 shows the ANOVA results from SPSS of gender on the ceremonies attendance and feeling. Results shows that gender has significant effects on Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony (F = 4.375, p = 0.037) and Ceremony Process satisfaction status (F = 4.180, p = 0.042), i.e., female generally tend to be mo positively after leaving the ceremony and more satisfy with the ceremony process than male. Gender dose not significantly affect respondents’ ceremony attended times, negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony, Synthesis Factor of satisfaction status and Ceremony Process Factor of satisfaction status. On the other hand, slightly significant different is observed between male and female on graduation participation categories (F = 3.08, p = 0.08).
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

Graduation ceremonies – 5 categories 
Between Groups 
6.815 
1 
6.815 
3.080 
.080 
Within Groups 
652.747 
295 
2.213 

Total 
659.562 
296 

How often have you attended a similar graduation ceremony before (as a guest or a graduate)? 
Between Groups 
.325 
1 
.325 
1.675 
.197 
Within Groups 
60.875 
314 
.194 

Total 
61.199 
315 

Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony 
Between Groups 
4.347 
1 
4.347 
4.375 
.037 
Within Groups 
312.021 
314 
.994 

Total 
316.368 
315 

Negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony 
Between Groups 
.045 
1 
.045 
.043 
.835 
Within Groups 
322.403 
314 
1.027 

Total 
322.448 
315 

Synthesis Factor 
Between Groups 
.013 
1 
.013 
.013 
.910 
Within Groups 
306.997 
306 
1.003 

Total 
307.010 
307 

Organizational Factor 
Between Groups 
.126 
1 
.126 
.124 
.725 
Within Groups 
309.650 
306 
1.012 

Total 
309.776 
307 

Ceremony Process Factor

Between Groups 
3.977 
1 
3.977 
4.180 
.042 
Within Groups 
291.148 
306 
.951 

Total 
295.125 
307 
Table 3. ANOVA results from SPSS testing effects of gender on the above categories
Relationship among age, satisfaction, behavioural intention and emotions
In particular, there is positive relationship between age and synthesis satisfaction status (table 4, F = 4.75, p = 0.03 and R2 = 0.015), but not observed in other satisfaction factors. Strong significant positive relationship has been found between synthesis satisfaction status and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony (table 5, F = 173.309, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.287). Strong positive relationship also detected between synthesis satisfaction status and positive emotion (table 6, F = 173.309, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.353), while not with negative emotion. In addition, there is strong colinearity relationship between emotions status (both positive and negative) and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony (table7, F = 88.484, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.359), i.e. positive relationship for positive emotion (β = 0.418) and negative relationship for negative emotion (β = 0.170) with behavioural intention.
Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.124(a) 
.015 
.012 
.99176253 
(a)
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
4.672 
1 
4.672 
4.750 
.030(a) 
Residual 
299.012 
304 
.984 

Total 
303.684 
305 
(b)
Table 4, Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA test (b) from SPSS between age and synthesis satisfaction status
Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.536(a) 
.287 
.285 
.718 
(a)
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
64.892 
1 
64.892 
126.008 
.000(a) 
Residual 
161.190 
313 
.515 

Total 
226.083 
314 
(b)
Table 5. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA test (b) from SPSS between synthesis satisfaction status and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony
Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.595(a) 
.353 
.351 
.8087703 
(a)
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
113.363 
1 
113.363 
173.309 
.000(a) 
Residual 
207.353 
317 
.654 

Total 
320.716 
318 
(b)
Table 6. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA test (b) from SPSS between synthesis satisfaction and positive emotion
Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.604(a) 
.365 
.361 
.676 
(a)
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
83.886 
2 
41.943 
91.854 
.000(a) 
Residual 
146.120 
320 
.457 

Total 
230.006 
322 
(b)
Model 
Unstandardized Coefficients 
Standardized Coefficients 
t 
Sig. 

B 
Std. Error 
Beta 
B 
Std. Error 

1 
(Constant) 
4.453 
.038 
118.444 
.000 

Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony 
.481 
.038 
.569 
12.766 
.000 

Negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony 
.170 
.037 
.202 
4.540 
.000 
(c)
Table 7. Linear regression model summary (a), ANOVA (b) and Coefficients (c) from SPSS between emotions status and behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony
Accordingly, respondents’ behavioural intention of recommending friends attending graduation ceremony can be predicted from their synthesis satisfaction status and emotional status after attending the ceremony. Respondents’ are more intend to recommend their friends coming to the ceremony if they had high satisfaction and positive emotion. Otherwise they would potentially not recommending their friend attending the ceremony if they were not satisfy with ceremony or had negative feeling after leaving.
Other Findings
There is significant positive relationship between respondents’ overall satisfaction and the frequency of talking about with their graduation ceremony with friends and families in genera way (table 8, F = 31.452, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.086). However, not any relationship has been found between satisfactions and talking about ceremony in social network site. This probably due to fewer people use social network site to describe their graduation ceremony.
Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.294(a) 
.086 
.084 
.877 
(a)
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
24.196 
1 
24.196 
31.452 
.000(a) 
Residual 
256.174 
333 
.769 

Total 
280.370 
334 
(b)
Table 8. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA (b) from SPSS between respondents’ overall satisfaction and the frequency of talking about with their graduation ceremony with friends and families in genera way
In addition, significant positive relationship has been detected between the ceremony information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter the overall ceremony satisfaction (table 9, F = 26.104, p < 0.001, and R2 = 0.072), and also between information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter with respondents’ intention of recommending friends to the further ceremony (table 10, F = 28.454, p < 0.001 and R2 = 0.081).
Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.269(a) 
.072 
.070 
.883 
(a)
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
20.366 
1 
20.366 
26.104 
.000(a) 
Residual 
260.586 
334 
.780 

Total 
280.952 
335 
(b)
Table 9. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA (b) from SPSS between respondents’ overall satisfaction and information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
18.728 
1 
18.728 
28.454 
.000(a) 
Residual 
211.278 
321 
.658 

Total 
230.006 
322 
(a)
Model 
Unstandardized Coefficients 
Standardized Coefficients 
t 
Sig. 

B 
Std. Error 
Beta 
B 
Std. Error 

1 
(Constant) 
3.175 
.244 
13.031 
.000 

How do you rate the information received before the ceremonies?Information in the Graduation pack sent at Easter 
.305 
.057 
.285 
5.334 
.000 
(b)
Table 10. Linear regression model summary (a) and ANOVA (b) from SPSS between respondents’ intention of recommending friends to the further ceremony and information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter
Furthermore, there is a weak significant colinearity relationship between emotions status and number of guests accompanied (F = 3.842, p = 0.022 and R2 = 0.024), i.e. people with more guests tend to be more emotionally positive (β = 0.1), e.g. happiness, joy, excitement, etc, and those who have less guests tend to be more emotionally negative (β = 0.1), e.g. sadness, shame, etc.
Model 
R 
R Square 
Adjusted R Square 
Std. Error of the Estimate 
1 
.155(a) 
.024 
.018 
.916 
(a)
Model 
Sum of Squares 
df 
Mean Square 
F 
Sig. 

1 
Regression 
6.449 
2 
3.225 
3.842 
.022(a) 
Residual 
263.538 
314 
.839 

Total 
269.987 
316 
(b)
Model 
Unstandardized Coefficients 
Standardized Coefficients 
t 
Sig. 

B 
Std. Error 
Beta 
B 
Std. Error 

1 
(Constant) 
4.009 
.051 
77.898 
.000 

Positive emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony 
.101 
.052 
.108 
1.944 
.053 

Negative emotion for respondents’ feeling after leaving the graduation ceremony 
.100 
.051 
.108 
1.945 
.053 
(c)
Table 7. Linear regression model summary (a), ANOVA (b) and Coefficients (c) from SPSS between emotions status after leaving the ceremony and number of guests accompanied
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATION
Most respondents of the survey are from Welsh and English. Survey shows that 89.2% respondents were satisfied with their graduation ceremony. Respondents’ motions after leaving the ceremony can be separated as two overall factors: positive and negative. Satisfaction details of graduation ceremony can be separated three factors: Synthesis Factor”, “Organizational Factor” and “Ceremony Process Factor”. Female generally tend to be mo positively after leaving the ceremony and more satisfy with the ceremony process than male. There is a strong positive relationship between synthesis satisfaction status and positive emotion, but not with negative emotion. Respondents’ are more potentially intend to recommend their friends coming to the ceremony if they had high satisfaction and positive emotion in the ceremony, but would not recommend their friends if with low satiation and negative emotion after leaving ceremony.
Information satisfaction status in the Graduation pack sent at Easter could be one of the key factors decide the overall satisfaction status, and hence determine the intention of encouraging friends to the ceremony, which is the most concerned question by university. So that to improve information posting quality is important. Older students tend to have more synthesis satisfaction feeling than younger people.
In addition, there are about 96% students having at least 2 guests accompanied them for the ceremony. Those who have more guests turn to be more positive after finishing the ceremony and more intend to encourage their friends to come to the ceremony. Therefore, to encourage students inviting more guests seems to be a positive way to improve the ceremony felling qualification.
APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Respondents’ nationality frequency from SPSS
Frequency 
Percent 
Valid Percent 
Cumulative Percent 

Valid 
Welsh 
134 
39.9 
42.3 
42.3 
English 
134 
39.9 
42.3 
84.5 

Scottish 
2 
.6 
.6 
85.2 

Northern Irish 
1 
.3 
.3 
85.5 

Irish 
2 
.6 
.6 
86.1 

Other European 
11 
3.3 
3.5 
89.6 

Asian 
16 
4.8 
5.0 
94.6 

Other 
17 
5.1 
5.4 
100.0 

Total 
317 
94.3 
100.0 

Missing 
Refuse to answer 
3 
.9 

System 
16 
4.8 

Total 
19 
5.7 

Total 
336 
100.0 
Appendix 2: Respondents’ age range frequency from SPSS
Frequency 
Percent 
Valid Percent 
Cumulative Percent 

Valid 
2025 
272 
81.0 
86.6 
86.6 
2630 
16 
4.8 
5.1 
91.7 

3135 
7 
2.1 
2.2 
93.9 

3640 
5 
1.5 
1.6 
95.5 

4145 
6 
1.8 
1.9 
97.5 

4650 
6 
1.8 
1.9 
99.4 

Above 50 
2 
.6 
.6 
100.0 

Total 
314 
93.5 
100.0 

Missing 
System 
22 
6.5 

Total 
336 
100.0 
Appendix 3. SPSS frequency from question 1: How often have you attended a similar graduation ceremony before (as a guest or a graduate)?
Frequency 
Percent 
Valid Percent 
Cumulative Percent 

Valid 
This was my first time 
247 
73.5 
73.5 
73.5 
Once or more 
89 
26.5 
26.5 
100.0 

Total 
336 
100.0 
100.0 
Appendix 4. SPSS frequency from question 2: Graduation ceremonies – 5 categories
Frequency 
Percent 
Valid Percent 
Cumulative Percent 

Valid 
Arts and Humanities 
87 
25.9 
27.6 
27.6 
Business, Economics, Law 
67 
19.9 
21.3 
48.9 

Human and Health Sciences 
55 
16.4 
17.5 
66.3 

Engineering 
39 
11.6 
12.4 
78.7 

College Science 
67 
19.9 
21.3 
100.0 

Total 
315 
93.8 
100.0 

Missing 
System 
21 
6.3 

Total 
336 
100.0 
Appendix 5a. SPSS frequency from question 3: Overall how satisfied were you with your graduation?
Frequency 
Percent 
Valid Percent 
Cumulative Percent 

Valid 
Very dissatisfied 
8 
2.4 
2.4 
2.4 
Dissatisfied 
17 
5.1 
5.1 
7.4 

Neither 
11 
3.3 
3.3 
10.7 

Satisfied 
151 
44.9 
44.9 
55.7 

Very Satisfied 
149 
44.3 
44.3 
100.0 

Total 
336 
100.0 
100.0 
Appendix 5b. Satisfaction Descriptive Statistics
N 
Minimum 
Maximum 
Mean 
Std. Deviation 

Overall how satisfied were you with your graduation? 
336 
1 
5 
4.24 
.916 
Valid N (listwise) 
336 
Appendix 6a. SPSS frequency for question 5: Since graduation ceremony, how often have you talked about it with your friends/family?…in general (i.e. facetoface, via email, phone, etc.)
Frequency 
Percent 
Valid Percent 
Cumulative Percent 

Valid 
5 – Very frequently 
96 
28.6 
28.7 
28.7 
4 
117 
34.8 
34.9 
63.6 

3 
81 
24.1 
24.2 
87.8 

2 
39 
11.6 
11.6 
99.4 

1 – Not at all 
2 
.6 
.6 
100.0 

Total 
335 
99.7 
100.0 

Missing 
System 
1 
.3 

Total 
336 
100.0 
Appendix 6b. SPSS frequency for question 5: Since your graduation ceremony, how often have you talked about it with your friends/family?…using social network sites (e.g. Facebook, MySpace, etc.)
Frequency 
Percent 
Valid Percent 
Cumulative Percent 

Valid 
5 – Very frequently 
40 
11.9 
12.3 
12.3 
4 
80 
23.8 
24.5 
36.8 

3 
93 
27.7 
28.5 
65.3 

2 
65 
19.3 
19.9 
85.3 

1 – Not at all 
48 
14.3 
14.7 
100.0 

Total 
326 
97.0 
100.0 

Missing 
System 
10 
3.0 

Total 
336 
100.0 