ROLE OF MICRO FINANCE IN POVERTY REDUCTION
Table of contents
- Rationale of the study
- Research problem
- Objective of the study
- Literature review
- Micro Finance
- History of Micro Finance
- Principle of Micro Finance
- Limitations of Micro Finance
- Tools for poverty reduction
- Poverty eradication programmes in India
- Role of Micro Finance
- Role of Micro Finance in poverty alleviation across the world
- Role of Micro Finance in poverty alleviation in India
- Questionnaire for Managers
- Questionnaire for customers or borrowers
- Questionnaire for credit policy
- Research methodology
- Research means
- Research design
- Type of research design
- Research approach
- Sampling technique
- Types of sampling technique
- Data collection
- Comparison of qualitative and quantitative data
- Methods of data collection
- Methods of Data analysis
- Limitation of research
- Data analysis
- Expected findings
- Analysis of questionnaire
- Questionnaire for credit policy
- Evaluation of results
- Chapter 1: Introduction
What is poverty? Poverty is a hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of representation and freedom (Smith and Stephen, 2005). Poverty is a single terminology but it’s strange to have a lot many definitions associated with it and along with, it also possess a lot of problems and suffering. From the statistical crunching of figures it is estimated that in the year 2010, there are 925 million hungry people in the world (Sen and Amartaya, 1999). To tumble down this statistical figure, government is opting a lot many programs and schemes which includes the help to the peoples below poverty line by providing fund through Micro Finance Bank.
Figure no. 1: Poverty figures around globe (from 1969-2010)
Microfinance is a kind of banking service which provides financial service to unemployed or low income individuals or the type of peoples who possess no other means for gaining financial services (Mutesasira and Wright, 2001). The ultimate purpose of these banks is to provide financial support to the low income people and assist them by providing an opportunity to become self- sufficient by the various means of saving money, borrowing money and insurance. Micro Finance even certainly plays an important role in providing a safety net and consumption smoothening. The research is mainly conducted to understand the role of Micro Finance banks in alleviating poverty in India. The Global Hunger Index (GHI) Report 2011 ranked India 45th amongst the various leading countries with the hunger situation (Desai, 2003). To tumble down these figure government is launching certain programs which may eradicate the poverty and satisfy the needs of needy by quenching their thirst and satisfy their hunger. The development of Micro Finance Banks is one of the forward looking steps towards the development of poor people by reducing poverty in the fields of income, employment, education and housing. This step of the government is leaving behind the footprints of success of microfinance banks by intensifying the poor’s and make them enable enough to become self dependent and self esteemed. With the representation by facts and figure the percentage of population below poverty line is reducing year by year and achieving a new height of development within the country. Sengupta and Somini (2009) explained that despite of government initiatives, corporate social responsibilities (CSR) is also initiated as the way of earning virtue from the poor people as this now-a-days became a good source of marketing their brand and developing a market image of their brand.
Figure no. 2: Poverty figures of India (from 1973-2000)
The main purpose for conducting such a research is to understand the need of microfinance bank in alleviating poverty. The government is investing a lot much money in such a plan of running Micro Finance Bank to provide a proper help to the poorer and aggravate the conditions of poor’s and to make them self sufficient to better sustain their life. It’s the responsibility of the government to understand the needs of every citizen within the national boundary and assist them as and when required. Hence it is also necessary to know that whether the programs initiated by the government works efficiently or not and does it properly works in reducing poverty. This research is conducted to understand the benefits of Micro Finance Banks in favor of poor people that aggravate the hopes of the country. Thus moving apart from the problem of eradicating service gap there may also arouse the problem of security on the part of both the party in different terms.
The research discussing extensively on the role of the Micro Finance Banks on reducing poverty is basically based on focusing he working and service quality of the banks to satisfy the needs of the customers. Thus the line of the customers in such banks starts with the people whose level of income is low along with it the standard of living is also low, which can sometime makes them difficult to understand the needs and demands. There can also generate the gap level between the two in understanding their customers’ needs and also fulfilling the demands of the service provider. Even the customers at such bank are illiterate and handles the low income at their part so there may sometime occurs the gaps (Karlan D and Valdivia M., 2009). The service provider organization may many time unknowingly creates a gap between the themselves and their customer which can be the of understanding, a gap of communication, a gap of service quality between the customer and service provider and the many more gaps which may be regarding the perception of both the customer and the service provider.
Aim and objectives always revolves around the title of the research study. The researcher on his part of success is always involved in achieving success which is backed up by the aims and objectives. The aims and objective of the research is to understand the growth parameter at the whole with the respect of Micro Finance Bank to alleviate the poverty of the country.
The main aim and objectives of the research are:
- To understand the role of Micro Finance Banks in poverty reduction.
- To identify and analyze the factors affecting the working of Micro Finance Bank.
- To identify the customer satisfaction level with reference to the service provided by the Micro Finance Bank.
- To analyze that whether the borrowers became successful in their undertakings.
- To observe the improvements achieved in the reduction of poverty in the fields of income, employment, education and housing.
- To understand the customer’s perspective for the innovation in the service of the Micro Finance banks that would reduce the financial strain of the consumers.
- To improvise the Micro Finance programs to eradicate poverty by raising the income levels and broadening the financial markets.
- To provide financial and non financial services to the financially excluded people by Micro Finance Bank.