Task 1

1) Draw the network diagram (use activity on the node).

FIGURE 1-1 Essential methodology Network Diagram for Project Watchwell

2) Explain how you determined the timing of activities and the total float.

a. Network Diagram is drawn from left to right, and activity is used on node.

b. From left, calculating the Earliest Start (ES) at first. The start time of the project is assumed to be 0. The SE of A is 0, because A is the first activity of the project.

c. Then calculating the Earliest Finish (EF) of each activity. EF is equal to ES plus the Duration of that activity.

d. The ES of other activities after A inherits the EF of last ones. For example, the SE of B is equal to the FE of A, both of them are 4.

e. While several activities done in parallel on projects, the ES of next activity inherit from the longest task of those parallel ones. For instance, The ES of E inherits the EF of B, because B has the longest duration of 6.

f. After all calculation of ES and EF, the longest EF is the earliest time by which the project can be completed.

g. From right, the Latest Finish (LF) of each activity is determined by the whole needed time. For example, the LF of R is 56.

h. The Latest Start (LS) is equal to LF minus Duration. For instance, the LF of P is 52 minus 8.

i. The Total Float (TF) is the different value of LF and EF, or of the LS and ES.

3) Explain how you determined the project duration and the critical path.

Many project fail to meet schedule expectations. Critical method is a network diagramming technique to predict total project duration. A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which the project can be completed. It is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of float. Float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or project finish date. I have found out there two ways of calculating the Critical Path:

a. At first, to determine the dependencies of activities and to develop a good network diagram. Then calculating the critical path involves adding the durations for all activities on each path through the network diagram. The longest path is the critical path. For example, in this project, the path A-B-E-F-I-J-K-N-O-P-R’s length is 4+6+3+6+2+4+6+3+10+8+4=56 days, which is the longest path through the network diagram. Therefore, that path is the critical path of Project Watchwell.

b. The other way is to calculate the total float of each activity. If the float is 0, that activity is the critical task contained in the critical path. We can found that, activities whose float is 0, are A-B-E-F-I-J-K-N-O-P-R, which is the same as the critical path calculated by last way.

4) If the project starts on Monday 6 September 2010, what is the earliest date it can be completed using a 5 day working week? Assume no other holidays (explain how you calculated the figure).

Monday 22 November 2010.

∵September: 30days   October: 31days

∵56÷5=11weeks

∴The realistic duration is 7days*11weeks+1day=78days

The 30days+31days-5days=56days

∴The date=78-56=22 November

There 1 day left while 56 is divided by 5. Therefore, it is Monday.

5) If the following happened what would be the effect on the duration of the whole project? Explain the reasons.

a) 1 day delay during activity C.

The duration of the whole project would not be effected on, because C is not a critical task and the float of it is 4 which mean C may be delayed 4 days without delaying the project finish date.

b) Activity G is delayed 1 day.

The same as activity C, G may be delayed 4 days as well.

c) 2 day delay during activity R.

The float of R is 0, which means R is contained on the critical path. A critical path is the earliest time by which the project can be completed. Therefore, the duration of the whole project would be delayed 2 days due to the delay of R.

6) Explain and discuss the purpose of network diagrams.

Network diagram are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing. A network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationships among, or sequencing of, project activities. From figure1-1, the letters A through R represent activities with dependencies that are required to complete the project. The arrows represent the activity sequencing, or relationships between tasks. For example, Activity A must be done before Activity B, C and D, Activity B, C and D must be done before Activity E, and so on. The format of figure1-1 uses the activity-on-arrow (AOA) approach – a network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows and connected at points called nodes to illustrate the sequence of activities. A network diagram represents activities that must be done to complete the project. A network diagram can also help us find out critical/ non-critical activities. So if we know our critical activities we would like to allocate our critical people on the critical task and medium performing people on the non-critical activities. This also helps us to identify which activities we can run in parallel, thus reducing the total project time. Furthermore, missing tasks are easily identified from a network diagram than a WBS. Stakeholders can easily see the accuracy of requested due dates as well. Moreover, non-critical path resources can be utilized for better efficiency in order to meet or improve the due date for the project.

Task 2

Project Name: Jones New Building Project

Date: June 21, 2010

1.0 Introduction

Jones Ltd is an SME company specialising in the supply of office equipment. As part of a strategy of expansion, Jones Ltd is concerned with the opening of a building which they recently acquired to allow it to source and supply computers to a single main factory outlet (15,000 square meters). The staffing structure at the new building will mirror the existing structure at the existing site which has 1 General Manager, 1 Assistant Manager, 2 Administration staff, 4 Sales staff, and 3 warehouse staff. The transport functions are also contracted out.

This report is to explore the feasibility of opening a new building on time and within budget. The scope of the report is to outline the activities required to successfully manage the major project of opening the new building.

2.0 Project management process groups

As noted by Kathy Schwalbe (2006), projects involve five project management process groups: initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. Applying these process groups in a consistent, structured fashion increases the chance of project success. A process is a series of actions directed toward a particular result, and they are not isolated events. However, every project is unique, so there can be exceptions. Many knowledge areas are included during each process, and this will be illustrated detailedly in the following chapter.

3.0 Initiating processes

This process includes actions to begin or end projects and project phases. To initiate a project, someone must develop a project charter and hold a kick-off meeting to officially start the project.

Several tasks are completed before the project initiation starts. First, the project is approved through a formal project selection process and is given the go-ahead. Second, senior managers perform several activities as part of pre-initiating, as described in the following section. Finally, initiating begins as the project manager works with the team and other stakeholders to hold a kick-off meeting for the project and produce a stakeholder analysis, a business case, a project charter, and a preliminary scope statement.

4.0 Planning processes

Planning is often the most difficult and unappreciated process in project management. Often, people do not want to take the time to plan well, but theory and practice show that good planning is crucial to good execution. The main purpose of project planning is to guide project execution. To guide execution, plans must be realistic and useful, so a fair amount of time and effort must go into the project planning process. This process includes devising and maintaining a workable scheme to ensure that the project meets its scope, time, and cost goals as well as organizational needs. There are often many different plans to address various project needs as they relate to each knowledge area.

4.1 Scope management

What work will be done as part of the project? What unique product, service, or result does the customer or sponsor expect from the project? Those are categorical of scope. Project scope management involves defining and controlling what work is or not included in a project. The main output of scope planning is a scope management plan, which is a document that includes descriptions of how the team will prepare the scope statement, create the WBS, verify completion of the project deliverables, and control requests for changes to the project scope. Good scope definition is crucial to project success because it helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates; defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control; and aids in communicating clear work responsibilities. Work that is not included in the scope statement should not be done. The main techniques used in scope definition include analyzing products, identifying alternative approaches to doing the work, understanding and analyzing stakeholder needs, and using expert judgement. The main output of scope definition is the scope statement.

4.2 Creating the Work Breakdown Structure

A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. In other words, the WBS is a document that breaks all the work required for the project into discrete tasks, and groups those tasks into a logical hierarchy. Because most projects involve many people and many different deliverables, it is important to organize and divide the work into logical parts based on how the work will be performed. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a good WBS.

A WBS is often depicted in a graphical format, similar to an organizational chart. The name of the entire project is the top box, called level 0, and the main groupings for the work are listed in the second tier of boxes, called level 1. Each of those boxes can be broken down into subsequent tiers of boxes to show the hierarchy of the work.

1.0 Initiating

2.0 Planning

2.1 Scope management

2.1.1 Scope statement

2.1.2 Create WBS

2.2 Time management

2.3 Cost management

2.4 Human resource management

2.5 Risk management

3.0 Executing

4.0 Monitoring and controlling

5.0 Closing

FIGURE 4-1 WBS in tabular and chart form

4.3 Time management

Project time management involves the processes required to ensure timely completion of a project. The main planning tasks performed as part of project time management are activity definition, activity sequencing, activity resource estimating, activity duration estimating, and schedule development. The main documents produced are an activity list and attributes, a milestone list, a network diagram, the activity resource requirements, the activity duration estimates, and a project schedule.

4.4 Network diagram

Network diagrams are the preferred technique for showing activity sequencing. A network diagram is a schematic display of the logical relationship among, or sequencing of, project activities.

4.5 Activity duration estimating

Activity

Content

Completion time

Earliest

Start

Earliest finish

Latest Start

Latest Finish

Float

A

Initiating

5

0

5

0

5

0

B

Scope management

2

5

7

5

7

0

C

Time management

4

7

11

7

11

0

D

Cost management

2

7

9

9

11

2

E

RH

management

1

11

12

11

12

0

F

Risk management

1

12

13

12

13

0

G

Executing

30

13

43

13

43

0

H

Monitoring &controlling

15

43

58

43

58

0

I

Closing

5

58

63

58

63

0

Note: All durations are in workdays.

4.6 Critical Path Analysis

Critical method is a network diagramming technique to predict total project duration. A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determine the earliest time by which the project can be completed. It is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of float. Float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or project finish date. The longest path through the network diagram can be calculated, which is 63 workdays. It is the critical path of the project.

4.7 Cost estimating

Project teams normally prepare cost estimates at various stages of a project, and these estimates should be fine-tuned as time progresses. Before management approves a project, someone must develop a rough estimate of what it will cost to complete the project. Every cost estimate is unique, just ass every project is unique. There is a WBS in 4.5 for the project, as described earlier.

Ÿ Costs must be estimated by WBS and by month.

Ÿ Costs will be provided in CNY. Because the project length is one year, inflation will not be included.

Ÿ As a project manager, I will spend three-quarters of my time on the project, and an assistant manager and two administration staff assigned to the project half-time. Two of the team members will be from the sales department and warehouse, respectively. Additional internal resources from various departments will support the project as needed and charge their time to the project.

5.0 Executing processes

This process includes coordinating people and other resources to carry out the project plans and produce the deliverables of the project or phase. A deliverable is a product or service produced or provided as part of a project. There many outputs of this process: implemented solutions to problems, work performance information, requested changes, project plan updates, staffing updates, team performance assessment (as seen in Appendix 1), business process updates, and procurement document packages and contracts. Effective project human resource management is crucial to project execution. The two main tasks project managers perform include acquiring the project team and developing the project team. Key outputs include staffing updates and team performance assessment. Motivation, influence, effectiveness are three main points that manager should be concerned with, just like general management.

6.0 Monitoring and controlling processes

This process measures progress toward achieving project goals, monitor deviation from plans, and take corrective action to match progress with plans and customer expectations. In Monitoring and Control, progress reporting system is established, change control tools/ process. Problem escalation is defined. Project process versus plan is monitored. Project plans are revised. No matter how attentive the team is when creating the plan, the project work will not go according to plan. Schedules slip-this is the reality of project management. The project manager must have a system in place that constantly monitors the project progress, or lack there of. The monitoring system summarizes the completed work measured against the plan and also looks ahead to forewarn of potential problems.

7.0 Closing processes

This process includes formalizing acceptance of the project or phase and bringing it to an orderly end. Administrative tasks are often involved in this progress group. In Close project, client acceptance is obtained. Project deliverables are installed. Project documentation is completed. Post implementation is audited and then final project report is issued.

8.0 Conclusion

Overall, the duration of the whole project is 63 workdays. This report presents a case which requires analysis and assessment through some techniques and methods which are use in project management frequently. Therefore, Jones Ltd would get a developed project plan to open the new building, and conform to the goal of the organization.

原文链接:Project Management