The establishment of the Nondhaburi Telecommunication Training Center on August 24, 1960 with academic cooperation from the Government of Japan marked the origination of KMITL. The training center became the Nodhaburi Institute of Telecommunications under the Columbo Plan, later in 1964.
As specified by the 1971 King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Act, KMITL was originated by an amalgamation of three technical colleges: Nondhaburi Institute of Telecommunications, North Bangkok Technical College and Thonburi Technical College. In the same year, the Nondhaburi Institute of Telecommunications, or known as King Mongkut's Institute of Technology at Nondhaburi Campus, was relocated to the district of Ladkrabang in Bangkok. The new campus was called ''Chao Khun Taharn Ladkrabang Campus''. The Nondhaburi Institute of Telecommunications became the Faculty of Engineering in 1972. In the same year, the College of Design and Construction located at the Bangplad district was transformed into the Faculty of Architecture affiliated with KMITL.
In 1986, KMITL became a legitimate public university under a legislation called ''King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Act'', which regulates its governance, administration and operation. Like other public universities in Thailand, KMITL is a government agency under the supervision of the former Ministry of University Affairs, which was merged with the Ministry of Education on July 7, 2003. At present, KMITL, like other public or autonomous universities, is under the supervision of the Commission on Higher Education affiliated with the Ministry of Education.